Monosome burial in terrestrial pit (1,8x0,65x0,45 yd.) of ellipsoidal shape oriented in a north-south direction. Inside there was an individual found prone and in a semi-curled position on the left side, with the skull facing north to the west, lying on the forearm of the right upper limb, folded over itself. The left upper limb was also completely flexed, with the humerus arranged parallel to the trunk (fig 1). The skeletal findings, in lousy state of conservation, are attributable to a man of massive build, who died at the age of 35-45 years, whose height was 1.70 m. A resin reproduction of the buried was made.
Anthropological observation has allowed us to find different stigmata on skeletal material. The individual presents ossificant myositis of post-traumatic origin to the articulation of the right elbow (Fig. 2). This pathology derives from muscular lesions or tendons that generate haematomas and is due to the sharing of the periosteum to the repair of the trauma, which contributes to calcification and ossification. Such neoformations have caused in the subject pain, swelling, stiffness and decrease of the movement ability of that limb and in fact we notice a greater sturdiness of the contralateral limb, which presents arthropathy at the scapulo-humeral articulation and well marked enthesopathies on the limb. humerus (deltoid muscle, pectoralis major and small round), plausibly to compensate for the limiting motority of the right arm.
The left ulna has a porous plate at the center of the semi-lunar incision interpretable as chondropathy of the ulna, due to biomechanical stress and also olecranial osteophytosis, also defined as "woodcutter's lesion", a lesion of the woodcutter, consequence of repeated functional stresses of the triceps muscle brachial. The spine examination shows a strong vertebral collapse associated with lipping, with Schmörl thoracic hernias in an advanced phase (Figures 3, 4). The cause of these hernias could be traumatic, like a vertebral collapse, or it could be connected to a strong osteoporosis. On the lower limbs, visible roughness is visible on both the femurs caused by strong and continuous stresses in the origins and insertions of the ileo psoas muscles, medium and large gluteus muscles (also evident on the coxal bones), adductors and orthotics.
The furrow of the soleus muscle is clearly visible on the tibias and, on the tubercle, the insertion of the femoral quadriceps is evident through the patellar tendon. There is also a strong osteoarthritis of the right astragalus, with small bone bridges which caused a calcanear talus synostosis which caused joint stiffness and therefore a limitation of movement. The stigmata and the musculoskeletal markers found on the skeleton of this individual allow us to affirm that he certainly practiced a particularly intense physical activity. The presence of elements attributable to military activities allows us to hypothesize that the subject in question was a warrior.
The diaphysis of the right tibia presents periostitis, thickening of the cortical and narrowing of the medullary canal due to bone infection whose etiology, still little known, is linked to pathogenic germs. This pathology is better known as Garrè's sclerosing osteomyelitis and is a rare chronic condition, with a local painful symptom, constant but never intense. The possibility that it could be an osteoid osteoma, a benign neoplasm, which manifests itself in the same way (Fig. 5) is not excluded. The examination of the skull shows a slight cribra cranii, visible on the great wing of the sphenoid that could lead to a mild iron deficiency anemia.
The odontologic analysis allowed to detect the presence of slight calculus concretions associated with alveolar retraction, a small abscess at the level of the second left molar of the maxilla, caries (second premolar left of the mandible and third upper molar right of the maxilla, both at the root), lines of hypoplasia of the enamel, the agenesis of the third molars of the mandible and the infra vitam loss of the two medial incisors of the mandible and of the first left molar of the maxilla. Moreover, the very marked wear of the jaw teeth could lead to hypothesis of the extra chewing use of the dentition in support of the daily activities of the subject (dentition as "third hand"). Finally, on the palate, there are pits, indicators of poor oral hygiene. As far as discontinuous characters are concerned, the persistence of metopic suture is observed even in adulthood and the presence of the olecranon hole on the left humerus.